Hong Kong: attracting US architects in its own right

For decades, Hong Kong seemed mostly to be a portal for Western designers wanting to boost their Asian presence, especially in burgeoning China. After all, the city, on China’s southeastern coast, was easy to reach, centrally located, and English-speaking.

Today, though, 15 years after China absorbed the longtime British colony, Hong Kong, which has seven million people across 426 square miles, is attracting U.S. architects in its own right, including Tod Williams and Billie Tsien, Frank Gehry, and Kohn Pedersen Fox (KPF), among others. They are drawn in part by a more supportive environment for new construction and cutting-edge design.

And that shift in attitudes, they say, was solidified by the March election of Leung Chun-ying, a former real estate surveyor with a pro-development stance, to the city’s chief executive position.

Leung “has such a good understanding of property and its effect on various aspects of society, from housing to the environment to business,” says Paul Katz, a KPF managing principal who frequently works in the firm’s four-year-old Hong Kong office. “Of all the elected officials in the world, he is the most knowledgeable of the value of design.

KPF’s most-recent additions to the skyline are the International Commerce Centre (ICC), a 1,588-foot skyscraper that opened in 2011, and Hysan Place, a 700,000-square-foot office-building-and-mall located across Victoria Harbor from the ICC on Hong Kong Island, which opened this month. It is Asia’s first LEED Platinum mixed-use project.

Recognizing the city’s fresh turn in the architectural spotlight, New York’s Asia Society in April presented “Hong Kong: New Force in Art and Design,” a well-attended review of the city’s newest design accomplishments.

Among the featured projects was the new campus of the Savannah College of Art and Design (SCAD), from Leo A. Daly, which opened in 2010 in a former justice building. A rare adapative reuse project in a place with few historic buildings, the 70,000-square-foot project retained many original details, like the jail cell that’s now a conference room, which kept “graffiti from a number of nations, in a number of languages,” joked Bob Dickensheets, a SCAD external relations director, at the event.

In a similar vein, Hong Kong’s aging middle-class apartment towers are ripe for rehabs, though the living spaces in them tend to be miniscule by Western standards, and thus often require ingenious approaches, says architect Gary Chang, of Hong Kong-based Edge Design Institute.

Indeed, Chang redesigned his 340-square-foot childhood apartment to add sliding walls, and a bed that extends over a bath tub, to help allow for 24 different room configurations, as he showed in slides. “The city spends too much time on grand projects,” Chang said in a follow-up interview. “A city is a summation of things big and small.”

But large-scale projects do offer opportunities for Western designers, says architect James Law, founder of Cybertecture International and another Hong Kong designer taking the stage to tout his city’s achievements.

In particular, the under-construction Express Rail Link (ERL), which will offer high-speed train service to mainland China, could benefit those designers with transit experience, he says; others whose resumes include theme park experience might also find work. Hong Kong Disneyland, which opened in 2005, is constantly growing. And Ocean Park, an older offering, completed a $710 million expansion last year.

Also, Hong Kong’s many investment banks continue to need new office space, Law adds, and there’s a growing medical sector, as Chinese mainlanders come to the city for care, he said. “There’s a need there for a lot of international expertise,” he says.

But the development plans that will likely draw the most interest, according to designers and government officials, involve both the West Kowloon Cultural District and the former Kai Tak Airport.

For example, the 100-acre Kowloon site, for which Norman Foster completed a master plan last spring, is to have galleries and performance spaces. In March, the city launched a public design competition for the Xiqu Centre, an opera house that’s to be one of 15 venues at the site.

Because the government owns most of Hong Kong’s land, layers of bureaucracy can slow many projects; a shortage of buildable lots is another hurdle. Other U.S. architects complain that rules dictating an overabundance of contactors on job sites can be a drag.

Still, ribbons have lately been cut on several buildings by American architects, who have helped the local chapter of the American Institute of Architects (AIA), founded in 1997, swell from 161 members in 2002 to 264 today.

Opus Hong Kong, a luxury residence from Frank Gehry, who’s designed only one other Asian building, opened in May. Landmark East, a pair of shimmering high-rise office towers, is from Arquitectonica, which has a 50-person office there.

And, this winter, the Hong Kong branch of the Asia Society, from Williams/Tsien, opened at a former British armory that was empty since the 1980s. The project, which includes galleries and theaters, and open-air bridges that zigzag across a lush hillside, took 11 years to complete, says Williams, which isn’t necessarily a bad thing.

Hong Kong “is growing at a slower speed than the rest of the cities in China,” he says, “and in many ways, that’s been to its betterment.”

 

Source: Architectural Record

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